Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten has the highest melting point (3422 °C, 6192 °F), the lowest vapor pressure (at temperatures above 1650 °C, 3000 °F), and the highest tensile strength.

Approximately half of the tungsten is consumed for the production of hard materials, namely tungsten carbide, with the remaining major use being in alloys and steels. Less than 10% is used in other chemical compounds.

Soft tungsten materials, such as concentrate, NiW, and Calcined Grinding ash/ Sludge are used to make APT, BTO, YTO, and WC.

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